By Kasugai, Yu; Machtoub, Lina
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Extra resources for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : advances and perspectives of neuro-nanomedicine
The ALS Association is helping to fund an eﬀort by the Veterans Administration (VA) to collect information about veterans diagnosed with ALS, to shed light on possible environmental factors associated with the disease. This VA registry will also serve as a stepping stone to clinical trials. Both possibilities, of toxin exposure or the inﬂuence of intense exertion, are advanced when researchers consider the ﬁnding that Italian soccer players appear to have increased incidence of ALS. It remains unclear whether exercise is indeed a risk factor and what types of exercise may be of concern.
Copyright 2006, Springer Science. The motor execution in ALS has been also associated with increased activations of areas involved in motor learning, such as the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. It is suggested that an increase in movement-associated cortical activations beyond the primary motor cortex is associated with the degree of UMN involvement. 2 Electrophysiology in the Revised EEC The revised EEC state that EMG/NCV (nerve conduction velocity) examination is an extension of the clinical examination used to identify LMN dysfunction, which can be deﬁned by electromyographic concentric needle examination to provide evidence of active and chronic denervation.
In the motor neurons, BMAA activates AMPA-kainate glutamate receptors and boosts production of oxygen radicals. The presence of BMAA in cyanobacteria, among the most populous organisms in the world, has raised concerns that humans worldwide may be exposed to levels of BMAA that could be potentially harmful. Cyanobacteria from soil and water samples collected around the world produce BMAA, giving rise to speculative biomagniﬁcation in food chains. Scientists have also found that newborn rats treated with BMAA show early neurotoxicity and impaired learning and memory as adults.