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By Alison R. Bernstein

The influence of worldwide conflict II on Indian affairs was once extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes lower than Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ global conflict II stories in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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Includes bibliographical references and index.  Title. 54´03dc2090-50682 CIP The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources, Inc. Copyright © 1991 by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Publishing Division of the University. All rights reserved. A. First edition. Page v To my mother and to the memory of my father, Robert Bernstein Page vii Contents List of Illustrations ix Preface xi 1.

In wealth and in ability to adjust to white ways, they were the exceptions rather than the rule. The fact remained that the Indian land could not provide a basis for economic survival for most tribes. A considerable part of the Indian estate suffered from overexploitation of soil, range, and timber. A majority of Indians lacked the capital to acquire the seed, fertilizer, equipment, and livestock needed to revitalize their land-based economy. 51 The reservation was not bringing prosperity to the Indian people.

Despite strides made in broadening access to education during both the Hoover administration and the New Deal, nearly one- Page 16 quarter of all Indian males had no schooling as compared to 8 percent of the black population and just I percent of the total male population. 52 There were few jobs on reservations even for Indians who completed high school. Most Indian high schools prepared their students for industrial, or nonreservation, employment. In 1938, Gordon Macgregor, the assistant supervisor of education for the Indian Bureau, asked a number of educators to survey the success of vocational education for Indians.

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