By D. D. Eley, Herman Pines, Werner O. Haag
Seeing that 1948, this serial has sought to fill the space among the papers that file and the textbooks that educate within the diversified components of catalysis examine. The editors of and individuals to Advances in Catalysis are devoted to recording development during this sector. every one quantity of Advances in Catalysis includes articles masking an issue of large curiosity.
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85. Walker, D. , Hogan, R. , US Patent 4,218,343 (1980). 86. , and Kung, H. , Prepr. Am. Chem. SOC. Div. Per. Chem. 37, 1194 (1992). 87. Owens. L. and Kung, H. , J . Cural.. 144, 202 (1993). 88. , Lopez Nieto, J. , and Suib, S. , New Develop. Select. Oxidation Heterog. Catal. (Stud. Surf. Sci. , 72). p. 213 (1992). 89. , Lopez Nicto, J. , Paredes, N . , Appl. Card A, 97, 159 (1993). 90. Eon, J. , and Volta, J. , 145, 318 (1994). 91. Corma. A.. Lopez Nieto, J. , J . C a r d . , 144, 425 (1993). 92.
Staged heating is sometimes utilized in the first stage where the reaction temperature of each reactor is controlled separately to obtain the best oil yield with minimum formation of hydrocarbon gases and avoidance of coking (19, 20). The oil is further refined in the following stages. Such a process scheme practiced at present is called multistage liquefaction. A series of reaction temperatures is expected to improve selectively specific reactions at different temperatures in a series of consecutive reactions.
The price of hydrogen greatly influences the cost of coal-derived oils. Liquefaction processes should minimize the consumption of hydrogen, and residue should not be used for gasification. Reforming of hydrocarbon gases for hydrogen production is economical compared to gasification of liquefaction residues. Multistage coal liquefaction has been proposed to consist of the following stages, as shown in Fig. 1 [this scheme is the basis for promising processes 12) (3) PRIMARY LHYDROgLIQUEFAC- T G E N A T I O N TION FIG.